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Case Studies

Brassica

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Kale

Also known as Chou Moellier, kales are winter active and mainly used as a winter feed yielding approximately 9.5 - 11t DM/ha . They are generally resistant to aphid, club root and dry rot. Kales require high soil fertility and good soil moisture. Higher sowing rates lead to thinner and more palatable stems. Kales should be strip fed to reduce wastage, taking 150 to 220 days to reach maturity.

Suitable for cattle, sheep, deer, but the taller varieties are best used only for cattle. Grazing must be light in late summer if regrowth is required. Hay or pasture run off will improve the nutritional balance of stock grazing kale. To reduce risk of SMCO toxicity avoid the use of Sulphate fertiliser, particularly where soil sulphate levels are high. >> View Catalogue


Rape

Forage rape may be sown alone or in mixtures as a specialist summer to winter feed. Rape is often included in pasture mixes and sown at 0.5 1.0 kg/ha. Rape can be sown from early spring to late summer and is generally ready to graze 12-16 weeks after sowing. Rape can be grown on lower soil fertility soil than most other brassicas. With good soil fertility and moisture, yields of 8 t DM/ha can be achieved.

Aphids need to be controlled if using susceptible cultivars. Do not grow in clubroot infected areas unless resistant varieties are used. Some care is required when grazing rape and it is best to allow the crop to fully mature before grazing and to also gradually increase Rape in their diet. Do not allow hungry livestock adlib feeding on rape if previously on pasture as problems such as nitrate poisoning and rape scald can occur. >> View Catalogue


Turnip

As a Root crop, Turnips provide greater resistance to aphid than rape crops but are more sensitive to deficiencies of boron, particularly in wetter years or if over-liming has occurred. Affected bulbs show brown heart symptoms. Stock grazing root crops need sound teeth to make effective use of them, and energy requirements are higher because of the high water content of the bulbs.

Turnip varieties vary in yield potential, ploidy level, maturity, size of bulb, bulb keeping quality, and these factors considerably influence the choice and intended usage. October sowings produce summer feed, whilst later sowings through to early March produce autumn winter feed. Turnips may be sown alone or in mixtures with rape or grasses, particularly Italian ryegrasses. Turnips are generally susceptible to aphids, club root, dry rot, and virus.

Yields tend to increase with later maturity types and vary from 5 to 8 t DM/ha. A highly digestible turnip bulb provides a good source of sugars which, combined with a high protein concentration in the turnip tops stimulates good rumen function. Tetraploid varieties have larger seed and should be sown at a higher sowing rate. >> View Catalogue


Swede

As a Root crop, Swedes provide greater resistance to aphid than rape crops but are more sensitive to deficiencies of boron, particularly in wetter years or if over-liming has occurred. Affected bulbs show brown heart symptoms. Stock grazing root crops need sound teeth to make effective use of them, and energy requirements are higher because of the high water content of the bulbs.

Swedes are sown November to early December , either ridged in wet cool areas, or conventionally drilled to provide specialist winter feed. Generally yellow fleshed swede varieties are commonly used for human consumption because of improved flavour and lower water content compared to white fleshed types. Winter yields of 10 to 16 t DM/ha are achievable. > View Catalogue



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